For more than five years, DC/OS has enabled some of the largest, most sophisticated enterprises in the world to achieve unparalleled levels of efficiency, reliability, and scalability from their IT infrastructure. But now it is time to pass the torch to a new generation of technology: the D2iQ Kubernetes Platform (DKP). Why? Kubernetes has now achieved a level of capability that only DC/OS could formerly provide and is now evolving and improving far faster (as is true of its supporting ecosystem). That’s why we have chosen to sunset DC/OS, with an end-of-life date of October 31, 2021. With DKP, our customers get the same benefits provided by DC/OS and more, as well as access to the most impressive pace of innovation the technology world has ever seen. This was not an easy decision to make, but we are dedicated to enabling our customers to accelerate their digital transformations, so they can increase the velocity and responsiveness of their organizations to an ever-more challenging future. And the best way to do that right now is with DKP.
With the help of our Docker executor for Mesos, Mesos can run and manage Docker containers in conjunction with Chronos and Mesosphere's Marathon frameworks. Our executor is the connector between Mesos and the underlying Docker task.
Docker containers provide a consistent, compact and flexible means of packaging application builds. Delivering applications with Docker on Mesos promises a truly elastic, efficient and consistent platform for delivering a range of applications on premises or in the cloud.
Service Launch and Discovery
Let's launch a service in a Docker container and use Marathon's discovery features to find and connect to it from another Docker container. In this example, we'll launch Redis within a Docker container and then connect to it using the Redis CLI.
Launching Docker containers with Marathon is a matter of assigning the "executor" parameter to point to a Docker executor and making the container name the first word of the command.
:; http POST http://localhost:8080/v1/apps/start
id=multidis instances=2 mem=512 cpus=1
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
Once we have two Redis instances running, we can query Marathon to find them and connect to them.
:; http GET http://localhost:8080/v1/endpoints
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
multidis 10445 ip-10-184-7-73.ec2.internal:31001 ip-10-184-7-73.ec2.internal:31000
Using one of the ip:port pairs above, we can connect to one of our Redis instances, using the same Docker image, to get access to a working Redis CLI:
:; sudo docker run -i -t johncosta/redis
redis-cli -h ip-10-184-7-73.ec2.internal -p 31001
redis ip-10-184-7-73.ec2.internal:31001> SET x 7
redis ip-10-184-7-73.ec2.internal:31001> GET x
There's no need to install Redis or its supporting libraries on your Mesos hosts.
Mesos And Docker In Operation
A Mesos cluster comprises a few masters and many slaves. As work is farmed out to them, Mesos slaves delegate to executors for the setup and teardown of individual tasks. It is the executor that manages communication between the slave and the Docker daemon. The Docker daemon manages caching and launch of Docker images, which can be pulled from the global Docker index or a local registry.
alt="Marathon can launch and monitor service containers from one or more
Docker registries using the Docker executor for Mesos." />
When a Docker container is started as a Mesos task, it runs beneath the Docker daemon on a slave server. Although the Docker container does not run as a true child process of the executor, as it would have under the old Docker standalone mode, the executor is able to manage translation of resource limits, signals and Mesos process control messages to appropriate calls of the docker tool. Fine-grained resource monitoring, forthcoming in mainline Mesos and part of some service management tools, is hard to do right if the container does not run directly under the executor -- so this architecture may be revised in the future.
alt="The executor, monitored by the Mesos slave, delegates to the local
Docker daemon for image discovery and management. The executor
communicates with Marathon via the Mesos master and ensures that Docker
enfores the specified resource limitations." />
When a user requests a Docker container with Marathon, using the web UI or the HTTP API as in the examples above, the request is ultimately delegated to the LXC tools, by way of Mesos and Docker.
Marathon makes a resource request from the Mesos master and then waits to accept an appropriate offer.
Once an offer is accepted, the Mesos master sends the task's specification to the slave.
On the slave server, the Mesos slave daemon calls the Mesos-Docker executor which in turn calls the docker command line tool.
The docker command line tool talks to the local Docker daemon, which manages interactions with the cache of images and the LXC tools.
If the image is cached, it will be run from the cache. Otherwise, the Docker daemon contacts a Docker registry to retrieve it.
The Docker daemon runs the container under the LXC tools.
Reproducing This Example
Installation of the many components used here is straightforward. Mesos and the Python bindings for Mesos are available as packages:
Marathon, a Scala program, can be run from a standalone Jar. We've made an Upstart script for it, too.
With Mesos and Marathon, you have everything you need to start running reliable services across your cluster.
The Docker project provides Ubuntu 13.04 installation instructions.
To follow along with the examples above, install the Docker executor as /var/lib/mesos/executors/docker.
For a standalone installation, we've put together a script that installs all the needed components and configures them on Ubuntu 13.04. Just pipe it to a shell running under sudo and you're all set:
curl -fL https://raw.github.com/mesosphere/mesos-docker/master/bin/mesos-docker-setup | sudo bash